Quandaries
and Queries 

Name: Stephanie Who is asking:
Student Question: This year, I have decided to continue the project. The problem is, I need a new way to measure randomness without the use of fancy computers or something. I have searched the Internet, I have posted my query on websites based on math, and I have searched the local library. I have found many useful things on the Internet, but none of them can tell me a new way to measure randomness. I cannot do a perfect shuffle, and I am not terribly gifted in the art of using computers. If you have any information (anything will help) or advice, I would be greatly obliged. Thank you for your time! 

Hi Stephanie, What you ask a very difficult, "I need a new way to measure randomness." There is a mathematical concept called Kolmogrov complexity that addresses your question. Information on this concept can be found at http://homepages.cwi.nl/~paulv/kolmogorov.html. To quote from this page
In your situation Kolmogorov complexity measures the randomness in a particular shuffle rather than the average randomness produced by an automatic card shuffler or the average randomness produced by shuffling by hand. Andrei 

