



 
Hi Ed, What you charge your customer is made up of two pieces, $10.95 which is your cost and the remainder which is your margin. By saying your margin is 19% what is meant is that your margin is 19% of what you charge your customer. This means that your cost must be 100%  19% = 81% of what you charge your customer. To say this again
Thus if you charge $x then
Dividing both sides by 0.81 gives
Penny  


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