Question from Chinonyerem, a student:
Each of the numbers
1 = 1, 3 = 1+2, 6 = 1+2+3, 10 = 1+2+3+4 ,...
represents the number of dots that can be arranged evenly in an equilateral
triangle:
.
. . .
. . . . . ...
. . . . . . . . . .
This led the ancient Greeks to call a number TRIANGULAR if it is the
sum of consecutive integers, beginning with 1. Prove the following facts
concerning triangular numbers:
(a) A number is triangular if and only if it is of the form n(n+1)/2 for some n >= 1
(b) The integer n is a triangular number if and only if 8n+1 is a perfect square
(c) The sum of any two consecutive triangular numbers is a perfect square
(d) If n is a triangular number, then so are 9n+1, 25n+3, and 49n+6
