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In your daughter's problem she doesn't know the number where I used eight, she just knows that whatever the number is, if you multiply it by 3 and then subtract 4 you get 14. To write a mathematical expression for this, rather than use words we use a letter to stand for the unknown number. So if I use the letter x to stand for the unknown number then the statement in the first problem is
which written as an equation is
In the second problem the word quotient signifies division. I am not sure how your daughter's teacher writes division, for example
could be written
or
or
Penny  


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