



 
Hi Soham, Write the numerator as \[\left(x  1\right) + \left(x^2  1\right) + \left(x^3  1\right) + \cdot \cdot \cdot + \left(x^n  1\right). \] In the expression above each of the terms \[\left(x^k  1\right)\] can be factored. Can you complete the problem now?  


Math Central is supported by the University of Regina and The Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences. 