# TEMPERATURE

## Regina, SK.

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# TEMPERATURE

## is right!

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1. Introduction and Overview

2. Evaluation

3. Suggested Lessons: Time

4. Suggest Lessons: Money

5. Suggested Lessons: Temperature

6. Instructional Methods for Teaching

10. Bibliography

### 1. Introduction and Overview

This document seeks to provide user-friendly suggestions for primary teachers of mathematics. Three sub-topics of the measurement strand of the new elementary mathematics curriculum guide are covered. Parts of this document have been adapted freely from "Mathematics: A Curriculum Guide for the Elementary Level".

Each sub-topic (Time, Money, Temperature) has several lessons. Teachers are invited to peruse the list of suggestions and select appropriate lessons for their particular classrooms.

The measurement strand makes up only 15% of the entire mathematics curriculum, and each sub-topic is only a small portion of the entire strand. Consequently, teachers are reminded that the content of these three sub-topics is frequently taught, not as a complete unit in itself, but all through the year, every year, for many years. Thus, the content, while sequential in nature, is taught incidentally and directly, and requires continual review and re-teaching.

### 2. Evaluation

Evaluation, for purposes of this unit, is to determine what has been taught - and the natural corollary is to improve instruction, monitor student progress, and show areas where re-teaching may be required.

Since mainstreaming is an educational reality in today's classrooms, evaluation and assessment often need to be individually adapted. As well, measuring student progress requires a variety of techniques.

In the primary grades, evaluation and assessment is an on-going, continuous, often informal, process. Data may be gathered through anecdotal records and by checklists. The assessments may be taken prior to formal teaching, during and after; for comparison purposes. Assessment stations are used more often today as the idea of learning centres becomes prevalent.

Formal testing may also be employed and includes such techniques as pencil and paper quizzes, and oral assessment. Performance tests can be particularly useful since the emphasis of the new curriculum is activity-based and manipulative.

### 3. Time - Suggested Lesson Ideas

##### [Duration: Approximately one week]
From the following list, choose lessons that best suit your learning objectives and the individual needs of your students. Realize and appreciate the fact that the teaching of time goes on incidentally all year, for several years.

• Begin the school year by counting off the days as they occur. Introduce the idea of the "Hundred Day Party". Plan to teach this unit during the week that the one hundredth day of the school year will occur.

• Use a selection of children's literature titles related to time such as Eric Carie's Grouchy Ladybug (see Bibliography). Concentrate on durations of one minute by solving a variety of one minute problems such as "How many times can you bounce a ball in one minute?", "How many addition questions can you do in one minute?", "How long is one minute?", or "Put your head up when you think one minute has passed."

• Construct a classroom timetable on the chalk board and add to it as the day and week progress.

• Sequence a variety of events in pictorial form. Some suggested ideas are: photographs of people aging, trees or other plants changing according to the seasons, steps to making popcorn or a cake, etc.

• Construct simple analog clocks with paper plates, paper hands, and a brass paper fastener.

• Construct simple digital clocks with strips of numbered papers wrapped around cylinders such as tin cans.

• Research and discuss the history of time pieces and clocks.

• Provide a display of a large variety of time measurement devices.

• Provide clock-face stampers for children to use at a learning centre.

• Prepare cooperative learning games such as The Same Time or Hickory Dickory Dock (both from Addison-Wesley Mathquest 1)

• Make posters or charts that record the passage of time such as MY DAY, A YEAR IN THE LIFE OF (student's name), and so on.

• Play clock BINGO with clock faces instead of numbers.
• Integrate a lesson on contractions using o'clock as an example.

• Sequence a week in a student's life highlighting various activities for each day of the week.

• Collect data on the children's birthdays and graph the results.

• Visit the same outdoor part or location four times (September, December, March, and June). Observe and record details regarding seasonal changes.

• Collect and display various calendars, daybooks, appointment books.

• Choose a sunny day and location to construct an easy sundial with a pole and rocks. Measure hourly and use rocks as indicators.

• Learn the verse "Thirty days hath September, April, June and November, and all the rest have thirty-one, except, February having 28. But Leap Year coming once in four, February then hath one day more".

• Learn the verse "Monday's Child is fair of face, Tuesday's child is full of grace, Wednesday's child is full of woe. Thursday's child has far to go, Friday's child is loving and giving, Saturday's child works hard for a living, and a child that's born on the Sabbath day is blithe and bonny and good and gay".

• Learn the verse "Solomon Grundy; born on Monday; christened on Tuesday; married on Wednesday; took ill on Thursday; worse on Friday; died on Saturday; buried on Sunday. This is the end of Solomon Grundy".

• Do activities in the gym or outdoors which can be timed with a stop watch.

• Prepare cardstock sets of cards for the months of the year; the days of the week, hours in a day, etc. Students can order these.

• Complete this chart every day:

Today is ____________.

Yesterday was _________________.

Tomorrow will be _________________.

• Flip coins a given number of times. Discuss heads, tails, and the probability of the results.

• Play "What time is it Mr. Wolf?" or similar-type games during Physical Education.

• Discuss day, night, tomorrow, today, yesterday, morning, afternoon, evening.

• Make pendulums of differing lengths. Time the swing and compare results. Show a metronome from the music department.

• Make a huge clock in the gym using students holding posters stating 1:00, 2:00, etc., and two brooms of differing lengths for clock hands.

• Collect data regarding the number of clocks in each student's home, and graph the results.

• Estimate the amount of time required to perform some task such as stacking blocks. Then, do the activity and actually time it; see who was able to estimate closest to the right time.

• Run a string or wire below the chalk board ledge. Use it with photographs or pictures and clothes pines - a "real" time line.

• Make large puzzle pieces on cardstock of three or four representations for the same time. Laminate.

• Conclude the unit with a "Hundred Day Party" on the actual hundredth day of the school year. Celebrate with 100 minutes of fun, 100 minutes of movies, 100 jelly beans, 100 ounces of drink, and so on.

### 4. Money - Suggested Lesson Ideas

##### [Duration: Approximately one week]
From the following list, choose lessons that best suit your learning objectives and the individual needs of your students.

• Introduce the topic of money with children's literature titles such as Alexander Who used to be Rich Last Sunday, or Matthew and the Midnight Money Van (see Bibliography).

• Play detective and use a magnifying glass to examine a collection of real coins stored in a cloth bag or change purse.

• Provide opportunities for the children to see, manipulate, count and compare actual coins and paper money. Note colors, shapes, thicknesses, relative sizes, estimated and real weights, and values.

• Discuss and research the history of money including bartering, minting, the introduction of the loon dollar, and so on.

• Show traditional dollar bills and compare with a loon dollar. Discuss why we have moved to the loon or "loonie".

• Coins can be mounted with rubber cement onto cardstock. The cards can be laminated as well. Use for demonstration purposes or in station activities.

• Develop a poster by mounting coins and bills, labeling their value, and laminating.

• For interest's sake, show collections of foreign coins or invite a coin collector to visit the class and discuss his/her hobby.

• Provide opportunities for students to manipulate, count, and classify coins in sorting trays. (An egg carton works well too).

• Research the history and origin of "Piggy Banks". Display a collection of same.

• Do rubbings of various coins using colored chalk or crayons. These can also be enlarged on the photocopier for an interesting display.

• After students have had the opportunity to examine real coins, provide play money which is very realistic and inexpensive today.

• Students can stack coins and compare values, and graph the results.

• Teach the symbol "\$" and provide kinesthetic opportunities for the students by cutting the symbol out of sandpaper, felt and so on.

• Solve a variety of problems that deal with realistic money questions. "How much...." type questions allow practice with adding and subtracting varying amounts of money. Advance to making change.

• Discuss point-of-sale electronic terminals such as the ones children are already seeing when their parents pay for groceries, and other purchases.

• A field trip might include an excursion to a nearby grocery store where products and prices could be compared (integrated with health nutrition lessons).

• A field trip might include a tour of a banking institution. Children would enjoy seeing the vault, safety deposit boxes, etc.

• Visit an automated banking machine (ATM) and demonstrate its use.

• Discuss cheques - both paycheques and those used to pay for items. Incorporate this incidentally when children bring cheques for school fees, etc.

• Discuss various charge cards and the manner in which they are used.

• Make a bar graph of student allowances. Discuss how allowances are spent.

• Bulletin boards can feature pictures and prices which can be incorporated into realistic problems for use during the unit.

• Remember that money concepts evolve from simple to sophisticated and need to be revisited frequently throughout the school year.

• Use catalogue pictures or newspaper advertisements to discuss realistic money problems.

• Build towers of coins of different denominations up to \$1.00, \$2.00, and \$5.00.

• Use Coin stampers to show "How much".

## 5. Temperature - Suggested Lesson Ideas

##### [Duration: Approximately one week]
From the following list, choose lessons that best suit your learning objectives and the individual needs of your students. Realize and appreciate that much of this topic can be taught incidentally throughout the school year, for several years.

• have a pictorial weather chart pasted up permanently and discuss it daily.

• Discuss temperature daily by having the children become aware of the temperature before they leave for school.

• Discuss "wind chill factor", especially during periods of "indoor recess".

• Make the children aware of temperature by using children's literature titles such a Robert Munsch's 50 Below Zero (see Bibliography).

• visit the same park or location four times during the school years (September, December, March, and June). Discuss seasonal temperatures, etc.

• Make a metre high thermometer our of heavy cardboard and red ribbon. Use it daily in your classroom.

• Make student-size thermometers similar to the metre-high class thermometer. Use these for oral questioning and evaluation.

• Display a wide variety of thermometers - alcohol thermometers of all descriptions, meat or cooking thermometers, round (metal spring) outdoor or window thermometers, oral, rectal medical thermometers, and so on.

• Set up stations where children can measure warm, cool, hot, and cold water, as well as buckets containing ice and snow.

• Make ice cream using cream in a small container inside a large container packed with snow and sprinkled liberally with salt. Measure the temperature of the snow/salt combination frequently throughout the experiment.

• Discuss heat sensitive objects such as "Hyper-color" t-shirts, etc.

• Make seasonal charts with magazine pictures to indicate average temperatures, activities, etc.

• Graph temperatures over a designated period of time - could be hourly over a single day, or at the same time of day for a week or a month.

• Visit the furnace room of your school. Discuss class thermostat, observe duct work.

• Show and discuss a power bill. Discuss methods of heating a home - gas, oil, electric, wood, etc.

• Estimate the temperature. Check your estimates with an accurate reading or report.

• Discuss health-related issues - average (body) temperature, fevers, etc.

• Discuss why a dog or other furred animal pants.

• Discuss weather "forecasts" and weather "reports".

• Watch weather reports on TV or listen on the radio. Incorporate map skills.

## Resources -

### Some Suggestions

#### TEMPERATURE

• pictures

• 12 hour clocks

• digital clocks

• analog clocks

• clock stamps

• stop watch

• calendars

• watches

• sand-time/egg timer

• sundial

• magazines

• paper plates
• real money

• play money, coins and bills, up to \$10.00

• money stamps

• cash register

• overhead transparencies of money, coins

• a variety of items to "play store"

• catalogues
• pictures of seasons, activities, dress

• non-standard thermometer

• bowls

• thermometers - indoor, outdoor, dipping, blank, picture

• containers

• ice-snow, warm, and cold water

## Time

Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems involving time

• identify longer/shorter periods of time using non-standard units

• determine the length of time (non-standard units) using a variety of simple "clocks"

• understand the concept of time by using a digital clock (hour), and 12 hour clock (hour, half hour)

• Order events according to time

• Understand and explain:

* 24 hours = 1 day

* 30 days = 1 month

* 7 days = 1 week

*12 months = 1 year

Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems involving time

• understand the concept of time by using a digital clock (minute), and a 12 hour clock (quarter hour, five minutes)

• order events according to time

• understand and explain:

* 30 days = 1 month

* 60 minutes = 1 hour

* 12 months = 1 year

Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems involving time

• understand the concept of time by using a 12 hour clock (minute, second)

• estimate events according to time

• understand and explain:

* 60 seconds = 1 minute

* 365 days = 1 year

## MONEY

Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems relating to money

• identify coins/bills up to one dollar

• understand the relationship between pennies, nickels, dimes.

• count with pennies, nickels, and dimes
Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems relating to money

• identify coins/bills up to ten dollars

• understand the relationship between quarters and dollars
Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems relating to money

• identify coins/bills up to one hundred dollars

• count with two dollars, five dollars, and ten dollars

• use strategies to make change for given values to five dollars

• add and subtract amounts of money using ccrrect symbols for cents and dollars

## Temperature

Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems involving temperature

• compare temperatures using terms such as "hotter", "older", "warmer", or "cooler"
Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems involving temperature

• compare temperatures using terms such as "hotter", "colder", "warmer", or "cooler"

• compare and estimate, then read a thermometer and record in degrees Celsius
Students should be able to:
• solve a variety of problems involving temperature

• compare and estimate, then read a thermometer and record in degrees Celsius

• use environmental signs to estimate temperature

### For Teaching Time, Money, and Temperature

#### Numeracy

• use measurement tools and devises accurately.

• collect data.

• record data.

• graph data.

• count and compare bills and coins.

#### Technological Literacy

• trace the historical evolution of measurement tools for time and temperature.

• trace the historical development of minting coins.

• discuss the evolution of banking as we know it today.

#### Communications Skills

• develop measurement vocabulary.

• listen attentively.

• organize information.

• make predictions.

• share personal experiences.

• participate in group discussions and activities.

#### Critical and Creative Thinking

• brainstorm ideas, vocabulary.

• classify information.

• discover relationships.

• explain, create, predict information.

• compare and contrast data.

• evaluate.

#### Personal and Social Skills and Values

• share personal experiences.

• respect differences.

• demonstrate cooperate work techniques.

• develop a personal sense of responsibility towards the use of money.

#### Independent Learning

• work alone, in pairs, in small groups, and in large groups.

• organize personal time, space, and materials.

• collect data.

• relate new knowledge to prior knowledge.

• evaluate program.

### Bibliography

Beesey, C., and Davie, L. (1992). Gage active mathematics level 1 (K-2). Toronto, ON: Gage Educational Publishing Co.

Carle, Eric (1977). The grouchy ladybug. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

Cleary, B. (1960). The real hole. NY: William Morrow Books.

Coombs, B., & Harcourt, L. (1986). Explorations 1. Don Mills, ON: Addison-Wesley Publishers.

Darling, K. (1972). The jelly bean contest. Toronto, ON: Thomas Nelson and Sons Canada, Ltd.

Drobot, E. (1987). Everything you want to know about money: An amazing investigation.

Toronto, ON: Greey de Pencier Books.

Edmonds, J., & Sachner, M. (1985). Time! Milwaukee, : Gareth Stevens Publishing, Inc.

Fice, R.H.C., & Simkis, I. M. (1966). Time and clocks (Wee discover series). Leeds, : Arnold and Sons, Ltd.

Giff, P, R. (1980). Today was a terrible day. NY: Viking Press.

Ginsburg, M. (1981). Where does the sun go at night? NY: Greenwillow Books.

Lac La Ronge Indian Bank. (1985). The six seasons of the woods cree. [Poster]. Available: Lac La Ronge Indian Band, Education Branch, Curriculum Resource Unit, Box 1410, La Ronge, SK., S0J 1L0, (306) 425-2183.

Liewellyn, C. (1992). My first book of time. Richmond Hill, ON: Scholastic Canada, Ltd.

Maestro, B. (1990). Temperature and you. NY: Lodestar Books.

Mathquest 1, Mathquest 2, Mathquest 3. (1989). Don Mills, ON: Addison-Wesley Publishers.

McInnes, J., & Murray, W. (1975) Telling the time. Don Mills, ON: Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) Ltd.

Mitgutsch, A. (1985). From gold to money: A start to finish book. Minneapolis, MN: Caroirhoda Books, Inc.

Morgan, A. (1987). Matthew and the midnight money van. Toronto, ON: Annick Press Ltd.

Rahn, J. E. (1983). Keeping warm, keeping cool. NY: Atheneum.

Richardson, J. (1992). Day and night. NY: Franklin Watts.

Saskatchewan Education. (March, 1992). Mathematics: A bibliography for the elementary level. Suitable Titles:

• Animal hours.
• Big time bears.
• Completed hickory, dickory, dock.
• Exploring measure, time, and money: Level I, II, and III [Software].
• The guy who was five minutes late.
• Math, money, and you.
• Old enough.
• Telling time.
• This book is about time.
• Time.
• Time, lines, and events.
• Time to....
• Understanding mathematics five.
• Windows on mathematics: Money and time.

*** Complete bibliographic information available in reference document ****

Short, C. (1989). Art for the Awasisak: The incorporation of Woodland Cree art, history, and culture into the Alberta Elementary Art Curriculum. Available: Alberta Teacher's Association.

Thaler, M. (1980). My puppy. NY: Harper and Row Publishers.

Troutman, A. P., & Lichtenbert, B. K. (1991). Mathematics: A good beginning - Strategies for teaching children (4th ed). Don Mills, ON: Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) Ltd.

Viorst, J. (1978). Alexander, who used to be rich last Sunday. NY: Atheneum.

William, V. B. (1984). Music, Music for Everyone. NY: Greenwillow Books.

This unit comes from the The Stewart Resources Centre which provides library resources and teacher-prepared materials for teachers in Saskatchewan. To borrow materials or obtain a free catalogue listing unit and lesson plans contact :
Stewart Resources Centre,